Thursday, February 6, 2020

Military Corporate Culture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Military Corporate Culture - Essay Example Groups play a significant role in a soldier motivational aspect. In these groups, the members will attempt to invent ways that will ensure the success of the group. For instance, it is necessary to invent new strategies that are capable of ensuring victory. These groups act as family to the soldier and will instigate corrective measures whenever necessary. These bonds created in the groups are sufficient to motivate the group. As a leader, it is vital to encourage the creation of these groups and join them. As evidenced before, most acts of heroism done by soldiers are attributed to the functioning and cohesion of these groups. In a group, one is confident that colleagues watch over you while you do the same to them.Rewarding individuals after successive completion of an assigned duty is considered as a motivating factor in encouraging continuous undertaking of assignments. Rewards have been continuously been utilized to continuously encourage positive behavior and mentality. There a re several ways that can be used to reward successful soldiers. Certification, bonuses, rank promotions and awards are useful. However, punishment for unwarranted behavior should never be ignored. Military code of ethics guides the behavior and conduct of the military. These code of ethics are specifically spelled out in the Department of Defense Regulations 5500,7-R. Chapter 2 of these regulations specifically dwells on the standards of ethical conducts and is directed at all the security departments and personnel.

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Skill and Training Background Essay Example for Free

Skill and Training Background Essay 1. Experience with the company personnel involved in the training The employee and staff in BIR are very approachable and they are cheerful person. I feel the trainee are part of their family we are treat them family as well and I experience the treatment as if I’m also their co-employee. They are let me learn and experience the day by day. The Company gave the best training for students that would give them a good training ground and would enhance their knowledge and skill. The school must have the job training their company. The school should visit the OJT to have the best monitoring of the training the students are taking. 4. Strong points We all know BIR is the collect taxes from the tax payer. As an intern’s I gained so much ideas especially in the tax field because I’m taking up financial management and accounting this is very relevant on my program. The company has a great training background and learning background as well because I learned slightly how to compute the taxes. This is a great opportunity for me to be one of their OJT’s. 2. Weak points and suggested solutions As an intern my concerned is, they won’t allow their OJT’s to handle some confidential documents like financial matter. And I don’t think that this is there weak point, for me, this is not an issue this is my own observation the office have lack of tables for the trainees they don’t know when we sited I suggest that we request them to give for the trainee extra table to be more comfortable especially when they recording the dockets.. V. RECOMMENDATION A. Potential of the company as a training ground BIR has a good training background especially to the finance and accounting students. The company offers great opportunity that would let me be more knowledgeable, confident and to develop my skills in so many thing. B. Duration of training (too long too short) The duration of my training is too short because I only lasted for more or less 2months. The first week of being an intern was really uncomfortable and nerve because I didn’t know how to communicate my boss in a nice way when I feel nervous. And I’m always nervous in what could happen to me every day. But the good side of the employee of BIR they are willing to share their knowledge and they will help you how to deal with other people in terms of the taxpayer pay their taxes. C. Suggestions for the improvement of the training program As far as the performance of BIR it was doing well. They should always hire at least two interns because They have good learning background and training background that the interns should absorb it and it will helpful for them to become a better employee in the future. D. Advice to future On- the-Job trainees Some of the students have taken their OJT for granted. They are not realizing how importance the future carrer. To all future On-the-Job Trainees student, here are some advices that I would like to share to you: * Learn to accept your mistakes * Take your OJT seriously, but don’t be too serious all the time always keep smiling everytime your getting tired * Listen carefully to the trainer and ask a question for a better understanding. * You should love your co-ojt and co-owners * Most importantly, hard work is actually enough. If you do well on your OJT you will definitely have a great evaluation, like me. So work hard and love your job.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Death and Immortality in The Epic of Gilgamesh Essay -- The Epic of Gi

Death and Immortality in The Epic of Gilgamesh The search for immortality has been a major concern for many men and women all throughout history. True love and immortality in life would be a dream come true to many. To spend time with a special someone, the person one feels closest to, and never have to say good-bye would greatly appeal to most people. But when death steps into the picture, even with all the pain and devastation, one starts to re-evaluate themselves. In The Epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh explores the possibility of immortality following the saddening death of his friend and brother, Enkidu. Gilgamesh, feeling the fear of his own mortality, sets out on a journey to search for a way to preserve himself. Although the journey that he endures is much larger than life, Gilgamesh comes to realize that he can never achieve immortality. Before the creation of Enkidu, Gilgamesh is a man without an equal match. He is an individual with overwhelming power, and it is because of this that makes Gilgamesh a very arrogant person. This arrogant side of him is accompanied by an extensive abuse of power, which leads to injustice and rage in the city of Uruk: â€Å"The young men of Uruk he harries without warrant†. This problem does not bother Gilgamesh; he lives to display to others his royal power. The first sign of change in Gilgamesh occurs after the birth of Enkidu. Gilgamesh’s mother, Ninsun, said to him, â€Å"Like a wife you’ll love him, caress and embrace him, he will be mighty, and often save you†. Gilgamesh has finally found his match, a friend who will serve as his life long companion. This new seal of friendship will cause a chang... ...nsciousness after death, or maybe a combination of both, which creates this fear. The fear felt is undoubtedly universal. However, the ways in which it is dealt with are varied and diverse. The concept of human mortality and how it is dealt with is dependent upon one’s society or culture. It is the society, which has the greatest impact on an individual’s beliefs. Hence, it is also possible for other cultures to influence the people of a different culture on such comprehensions. The irony of the story is that Gilgamesh, who wanted to enjoy immortality, actually achieves his dream. Thousands of years after his death, he and Enkidu live through the story of their adventures, which has been passed down through time. Gilgamesh and Enkidu will be kept in an immortal state for however long The Epic of Gilgamesh is told.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Digital Fortress Chapter 110-114

Chapter 110 Jabba stared blankly at the printout Soshi had just handed him. Pale, he wiped his forehead on his sleeve. â€Å"Director, we have no choice. We've got to kill power to the databank.† â€Å"Unacceptable,† Fontaine replied. â€Å"The results would be devastating.† Jabba knew the director was right. There were over three thousand ISDN connections tying into the NSA databank from all over the world. Every day military commanders accessed up-to-the-instant satellite photos of enemy movement. Lockheed engineers downloaded compartmentalized blueprints of new weaponry. Field operatives accessed mission updates. The NSA databank was the backbone of thousands of U.S. government operations. Shutting it down without warning would cause life-and-death intelligence blackouts all over the globe. â€Å"I'm aware of the implications, sir,† Jabba said, â€Å"but we have no choice.† â€Å"Explain yourself,† Fontaine ordered. He shot a quick glance at Susan standing beside him on the podium. She seemed miles away. Jabba took a deep breath and wiped his brow again. From the look on his face, it was clear to the group on the podium that they were not going to like what he had to say. â€Å"This worm,† Jabba began. â€Å"This worm is not an ordinary degenerative cycle. It's a selective cycle. In other words, it's a worm with taste.† Brinkerhoff opened his mouth to speak, but Fontaine waved him off. â€Å"Most destructive applications wipe a databank clean, â€Å"Jabba continued, â€Å"but this one is more complex. It deletes only those files that fall within certain parameters.† â€Å"You mean it won't attack the whole databank?† Brinkerhoff asked hopefully. â€Å"That's good, right?† â€Å"No!† Jabba exploded. â€Å"It's bad! It's very fucking bad!† â€Å"Cool it!† Fontaine ordered. â€Å"What parameters is this worm looking for? Military? Covert ops?† Jabba shook his head. He eyed Susan, who was still distant, and then Jabba's eyes rose to meet the director's. â€Å"Sir, as you know, anyone who wants to tie into this databank from the outside has to pass a series of security gates before they're admitted.† Fontaine nodded. The databank's access hierarchies were brilliantly conceived; authorized personnel could dial in via the Internet and World Wide Web. Depending on their authorization sequence, they were permitted access to their own compartmentalized zones. â€Å"Because we're tied to the global Internet, â€Å"Jabba explained, â€Å"hackers, foreign governments, and EFF sharks circle this databank twenty-four hours a day and try to break in.† â€Å"Yes,† Fontaine said, â€Å"and twenty-four hours a day, our security filters keep them out. What's your point?† Jabba gazed down at the printout. â€Å"My point is this. Tankado's worm is not targeting our data.† He cleared his throat. â€Å"It's targeting our security filters.† Fontaine blanched. Apparently he understood the implications-this worm was targeting the filters that kept the NSA databank confidential. Without filters, all of the information in the databank would become accessible to everyone on the outside. â€Å"We need to shut down,† Jabba repeated. â€Å"In about an hour, every third grader with a modem is going to have top U.S. security clearance.† Fontaine stood a long moment without saying a word. Jabba waited impatiently and finally turned to Soshi. â€Å"Soshi! VR! NOW!† Soshi dashed off. Jabba relied on VR often. In most computer circles, VR meant â€Å"virtual reality,† but at the NSA it meant vis-rep-visual representation. In a world full of technicians and politicians all having different levels of technical understanding, a graphic representation was often the only way to make a point; a single plummeting graph usually aroused ten times the reaction inspired by volumes of spreadsheets. Jabba knew a VR of the current crisis would make its point instantly. â€Å"VR!† Soshi yelled from a terminal at the back of the room. A computer-generated diagram flashed to life on the wall before them. Susan gazed up absently, detached from the madness around her. Everyone in the room followed Jabba's gaze to the screen. The diagram before them resembled a bull's-eye. In the center was a red circle marked data. Around the center were five concentric circles of differing thickness and color. The outermost circle was faded, almost transparent. â€Å"We've got a five-tier level of defense,† Jabba explained. â€Å"A primary Bastion Host, two sets of packet filters for FTP and X-eleven, a tunnel block, and finally a PEM-based authorization window right off the Truffle project. The outside shield that's disappearing represents the exposed host. It's practically gone. Within the hour, all five shields will follow. After that, the world pours in. Every byte of NSA data becomes public domain.† Fontaine studied the VR, his eyes smoldering. Brinkerhoff let out a weak whimper. â€Å"This worm can open our databank to the world?† â€Å"Child's play for Tankado,† Jabba snapped. â€Å"Gauntlet was our fail-safe. Strathmore blew it.† â€Å"It's an act of war,† Fontaine whispered, an edge in his voice. Jabba shook his head. â€Å"I really doubt Tankado ever meant for it to go this far. I suspect he intended to be around to stop it.† Fontaine gazed up at the screen and watched the first of the five walls disappear entirely. â€Å"Bastion Host is toast!† a technician yelled from the back of the room. â€Å"Second shield's exposed!† â€Å"We've got to start shutting down,† Jabba urged. â€Å"From the looks of the VR, we've got about forty-five minutes. Shutdown is a complex process.† It was true. The NSA databank had been constructed in such a way as to ensure it would never lose power-accidentally or if attacked. Multiple fail-safes for phone and power were buried in reinforced steel canisters deep underground, and in addition to the feeds from within the NSA complex, there were multiple backups off main public grids. Shutting down involved a complex series of confirmations and protocols-significantly more complicated than the average nuclear submarine missile launch. â€Å"We have time,† Jabba said, â€Å"if we hurry. Manual shutdown should take about thirty minutes.† Fontaine continued staring up at the VR, apparently pondering his options. â€Å"Director!† Jabba exploded. â€Å"When these firewalls fall, every user on the planet will be issued top-security clearance! And I'm talking upper level! Records of covert ops! Overseas agents! Names and locations of everyone in the federal witness protection program! Launch code confirmations! We must shut down! Now!† The director seemed unmoved. â€Å"There must be some other way.† â€Å"Yes,† Jabba spat, â€Å"there is! The kill-code! But the only guy who knows it happens to be dead!† â€Å"How about brute force?† Brinkerhoff blurted. â€Å"Can we guess the kill-code?† Jabba threw up his arms. â€Å"For Christ sake! Kill-codes are like encryption keys-random! Impossible to guess! If you think you can type 600 trillion entries in the next forty-five minutes, be my guest!† â€Å"The kill-code's in Spain,† Susan offered weakly. Everyone on the podium turned. It was the first thing she had said in a long time. Susan looked up, bleary-eyed. â€Å"Tankado gave it away when he died.† Everyone looked lost. â€Å"The pass-key†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Susan shivered as she spoke. â€Å"Commander Strathmore sent someone to find it.† â€Å"And?† Jabba demanded. â€Å"Did Strathmore's man find it?† Susan tried to fight it, but the tears began to flow. â€Å"Yes,† she choked. â€Å"I think so.† Chapter 111 An earsplitting yell cut through the control room. â€Å"Sharks!† It was Soshi. Jabba spun toward the VR. Two thin lines had appeared outside the concentric circles. They looked like sperm trying to breach a reluctant egg. â€Å"Blood's in the water, folks!† Jabba turned back to the director. â€Å"I need a decision. Either we start shutting down, or we'll never make it. As soon as these two intruders see the Bastion Host is down, they'll send up a war cry.† Fontaine did not respond. He was deep in thought. Susan Fletcher's news of the pass-key in Spain seemed promising to him. He shot a glance toward Susan in the back of the room. She appeared to be in her own world, collapsed in a chair, her head buried in her hands. Fontaine was unsure exactly what had triggered the reaction, but whatever it was, he had no time for it now. â€Å"I need a decision!† Jabba demanded. â€Å"Now!† Fontaine looked up. He spoke calmly. â€Å"Okay, you've got one. We are not shutting down. We're going to wait.† Jabba's jaw dropped. â€Å"What? But that's-â€Å" â€Å"A gamble,† Fontaine interrupted. â€Å"A gamble we just might win.† He took Jabba's cellular and punched a few keys. â€Å"Midge,† he said. â€Å"It's Leland Fontaine. Listen carefully†¦.† Chapter 112 â€Å"You better know what the hell you're doing, Director,† Jabba hissed. â€Å"We're about to lose shut-down capability.† Fontaine did not respond. As if on cue, the door at the back of the control room opened, and Midge came dashing in. She arrived breathless at the podium. â€Å"Director! The switchboard is patching it through right now!† Fontaine turned expectantly toward the screen on the front wall. Fifteen seconds later the screen crackled to life. The image on screen was snowy and stilted at first, and gradually grew sharper. It was a QuickTime digital transmission-only five frames per second. The image revealed two men. One was pale with a buzz cut, the other a blond all-American. They were seated facing the camera like two newscasters waiting to go on the air. â€Å"What the hell is this?† Jabba demanded. â€Å"Sit tight,† Fontaine ordered. The men appeared to be inside a van of some sort. Electronic cabling hung all around them. The audio connection crackled to life. Suddenly there was background noise. â€Å"Inbound audio,† a technician called from behind them. â€Å"Five seconds till two-way.† â€Å"Who are they?† Brinkerhoff asked, uneasily. â€Å"Eye in the sky,† Fontaine replied, gazing up at the two men he had sent to Spain. It had been a necessary precaution. Fontaine had believed in almost every aspect of Strathmore's plan-the regrettable but necessary removal of Ensei Tankado, rewriting Digital Fortress-it was all solid. But there was one thing that made Fontaine nervous: the use of Hulohot. Hulohot was skilled, but he was a mercenary. Was he trustworthy? Would he take the pass-key for himself? Fontaine wanted Hulohot covered, just incase, and he had taken the requisite measures. Chapter 113 â€Å"Absolutely not!† The man with the buzz cut yelled into the camera. â€Å"We have orders! We report to Director Leland Fontaine and Leland Fontaine only!† Fontaine looked mildly amused. â€Å"You don't know who I am, do you?† â€Å"Doesn't matter, does it?† the blond fired hotly. â€Å"Let me explain,† Fontaine interjected. â€Å"Let me explain something right now.† Seconds later, the two men were red-faced, spilling their guts to the director of the National Security Agency. â€Å"D-director,† the blond stammered, â€Å"I'm Agent Coliander. This is Agent Smith.† â€Å"Fine,† Fontaine said. â€Å"Just brief us.† At the back of the room, Susan Fletcher sat and fought the suffocating loneliness that pressed down around her. Eyes closed, and ears ringing, she wept. Her body had gone numb. The mayhem in the control room faded to a dull murmur. The gathering on the podium listened, restless, as Agent Smith began his briefing. â€Å"On your orders, Director,† Smith began, â€Å"we've been here in Seville for two days, trailing Mr. Ensei Tankado.† â€Å"Tell me about the kill,† Fontaine said impatiently. Smith nodded. â€Å"We observed from inside the van at about fifty meters. The kill was smooth. Hulohot was obviously a pro. But afterward his directive went awry. Company arrived. Hulohot never got the item.† Fontaine nodded. The agents had contacted him in South America with news that something had gone wrong, so Fontaine had cut his trip short. Coliander took over. â€Å"We stayed with Hulohot as you ordered. But he never made a move for the morgue. Instead, he picked up the trail of some other guy. Looked private. Coat and tie.† â€Å"Private?† Fontaine mused. It sounded like a Strathmore play-wisely keeping the NSA out of it. â€Å"FTP filters failing!† a technician called out. â€Å"We need the item,† Fontaine pressed. â€Å"Where is Hulohot now?† Smith looked over his shoulder. â€Å"Well†¦ he's with us, sir.† Fontaine exhaled. â€Å"Where?† It was the best new she'd heard all day. Smith reached toward the lens to make an adjustment. The camera swept across the inside of the van to reveal two limp bodies propped against the back wall. Both were motionless. One was a large man with twisted wire-rim glasses. The other was young with a shock of dark hair and a bloody shirt. â€Å"Hulohot's the one on the left,† Smith offered. â€Å"Hulohot's dead?† the director demanded. â€Å"Yes, sir.† Fontaine knew there would be time for explanations later. He glanced up at the thinning shields. â€Å"Agent Smith,† he said slowly and clearly. â€Å"The item. I need it.† Smith looked sheepish. â€Å"Sir, we still have no idea what the item is. We're on a need-to-know.† Chapter 114 â€Å"Then look again!† Fontaine declared. The director watched in dismay as the stilted image of the agents searched the two limp bodies in the van for a list of random numbers and letters. Jabba was pale. â€Å"Oh my God, they can't find it. We're dead!† â€Å"Losing FTP filters!† a voice yelled. â€Å"Third shield's exposed!† There was a new flurry of activity. On the front screen, the agent with the buzz cut held out his arms in defeat. â€Å"Sir, the pass-key isn't here. We've searched both men. Pockets. Clothing. Wallets. No sign at all. Hulohot was wearing a Monocle computer, and we've checked that too. It doesn't look like he ever transmitted anything remotely resembling random characters-only a list of kills.† â€Å"Dammit!† Fontaine seethed, suddenly losing his cool. â€Å"It's got to be there! Keep looking!† Jabba had apparently seen enough-Fontaine had gambled and lost. Jabba took over. The huge Sys-Sec descended from his pulpit like a storm off a mountain. He swept through his army of programmers calling out commands. â€Å"Access auxiliary kills! Start shutting it down! Do it now!† â€Å"We'll never make it!† Soshi yelled. â€Å"We need a half hour! By the time we shut down, it will be too late!† Jabba opened his mouth to reply, but he was cut short by a scream of agony from the back of the room. Everyone turned. Like an apparition, Susan Fletcher rose from her crouched position in the rear of the chamber. Her face was white, her eyes transfixed on the freeze-frame of David Becker, motionless and bloody, propped up on the floor of the van. â€Å"You killed him!† she screamed. â€Å"You killed him!† She stumbled toward the image and reached out. â€Å"David†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Everyone looked up in confusion. Susan advanced, still calling, her eyes never leaving the projection of David's body. â€Å"David.† She gasped, staggering forward. â€Å"Oh, David†¦ how could they-â€Å" Fontaine seemed lost. â€Å"You know this man?† Susan swayed unsteadily as she passed the podium. She stopped a few feet in front of the enormous projection and stared up, bewildered and numb, calling over and over to the man she loved.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Japanese Verbs Conjugations

Japanese verbs are roughly divided into three groups according to their dictionary form (basic form). The basic form of Group 1 verbs end with ~ u. The basic form of Group 2 verbs end with either ~iru or ~ eru. Group 3 verbs are irregular verbs. There are only two irregular verbs, kuru (to come) and suru (to do). Click here to learn more about Japanese verbs and hear their pronunciation (Audio Phrasaebook – verbs). Here are some common verbs from each group. The links lead to various conjugations of each verb. Group 1 aruku æ ­ ©Ã£   --- to walk asobu é Å Ã£  ¶ --- to play au ä ¼Å¡Ã£ â€  --- to meet hairu å… ¥Ã£â€šâ€¹ --- to enter hajimaru Ã¥ §â€¹Ã£  ¾Ã£â€šâ€¹ --- to begin iku è ¡Å'㠁  --- to go kaeru Ã¥ ¸ °Ã£â€šâ€¹ --- to return kakaru 㠁‹ã â€¹Ã£â€šâ€¹ --- to takekaku æ› ¸Ã£   --- to writekau è ² ·Ã£ â€  --- to buy kiku è Å¾Ã£   --- to listen matsu Ã¥ ¾â€¦Ã£  ¤ --- to wait motsu æÅ' Ã£  ¤ --- to havenarau ç ¿â€™Ã£ â€  --- to learnnomu é £ ²Ã£â€šâ‚¬ --- to drinkokuru é€ Ã£â€šâ€¹ --- to sendomou æ€ Ã£ â€  --- to thinkoyogu æ ³ ³Ã£   --- to swimshiru çŸ ¥Ã£â€šâ€¹ --- to know suwaru Ã¥ º §Ã£â€šâ€¹ --- to sit tatsu ç «â€¹Ã£  ¤ --- to stand tomaru æ ­ ¢Ã£  ¾Ã£â€šâ€¹ --- to stop tsuku ç â‚¬Ã£   --- to arrive uru Ã¥ £ ²Ã£â€šâ€¹ --- to sellutau æ ­Å'㠁† --- to singwakaru 分㠁‹ã‚‹ --- to understandwarau ç ¬â€˜Ã£ â€  --- to laugh yomu è ª ­Ã£â€šâ‚¬ --- to read Group 2 kangaeru è€Æ'㠁ˆã‚‹ --- to thinkmiru è ¦â€¹Ã£â€šâ€¹ --- to see; to lookneru Ã¥ ¯ Ã£â€šâ€¹ --- to sleeposhieru 教㠁ˆã‚‹ --- to teachtaberu é £Å¸Ã£  ¹Ã£â€šâ€¹ --- to eat Group 3 kuru æ  ¥Ã£â€šâ€¹ --- to come suru 㠁™ã‚‹ --- to do

Friday, December 27, 2019

Stanine Score Example

Stanine scores are a way to rescale raw scores into a nine point scale. This nine point scale provides an easy way to compare individuals without worrying about small differences in raw score. Stanine scores are typically used with standardized testing and are often reported on the results along with raw scores. Example Data We will see an example of how to calculate stanine scores for a sample data set. There are 100 scores in the table below that are from a population that is normally distributed with a mean of 400 and a standard deviation of 25.   The scores have been ranked in ascending order as 351 380 392 407 421 351 381 394 408 421 353 384 395 408 422 354 385 397 409 423 356 385 398 410 425 356 385 398 410 425 360 385 399 410 426 362 386 401 410 426 364 386 401 411 427 365 387 401 412 430 365 387 401 412 431 366 387 403 412 433 368 387 403 413 436 370 388 403 413 440 370 388 403 413 441 371 390 404 414 445 372 390 404 415 449 372 390 405 417 452 376 390 406 418 452 377 391 406 420 455 Calculation of Stanine Scores We will see how to determine which raw scores become which stanine scores. The first 4% of ranked scores (raw scores 351-354) will be given a stanine score of 1.The next 7% of ranked scores (raw scores 356-365) will be given a stanine score of 2.The next 12% of ranked scores (raw scores 366-384) will be given a stanine score of 3.The next 17% of ranked scores  (raw scores 385-391) will be given a stanine score of 4.The middle 20% of ranked scores (raw scores 392-406) will be given a stanine score of 5.The next 17% of ranked scores (raw scores 407-415) will be given a stanine score of 6.The next 12% of ranked scores (raw scores 417-427) will be given a stanine score of 7.The next 7% of ranked scores (raw scores 430-445) will be given a stanine score of 8.The next 4% of ranked scores (raw scores 449-455) will be given a stanine score of 9. Now that the scores have been converted to a nine point scale, we can easily interpret them.   A score of 5 is the midpoint and is the average score.   Each point in the scale is 0.5 standard deviations away from the mean.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Clusters and the New Economics of Competition - 7437 Words

Clusters and the new economics of competition Harvard Business Review; Boston; Nov/Dec 1998; Michael E. Porter; Volume: 76 Issue: 6 Start Page: 77-90 ISSN: 00178012 Abstract: Todays economic map of the world is dominated by what are called clusters: critical masses - in one place - of unusual competitive success in particular fields. Clusters are not unique, however; they are highly typical - and therein lies a paradox: the enduring competitive advantages in a global economy lie increasingly in local things - knowledge, relationships, motivation - that distant rivals cannot match. Untangling the paradox of location in a global economy reveals a number of key insights about how companies continually create competitive†¦show more content†¦Clusters affect competitiveness within countries as well as across national borders. Therefore, they lead to new agendas for all business executives not just those who compete globally. More broadly, clusters represent a new way of thinking about location, challenging much of the conventional wisdom about how companies should be configured, how institutions such as universities can contribute to competitive succe ss, and how governments can promote economic development and prosperity. What Is a Cluster? Clusters are geographic concentrations of interconnected companies and institutions in a particular field. Clusters encompass an array of linked industries and other entities important to competition. They include, for example, suppliers of specialized inputs such as components, machinery, and services, and providers of specialized infrastructure. Clusters also often extend downstream to channels and customers and laterally to manufacturers of complementary products and to companies in industries related by skills, technologies, or common inputs. 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In this neoclassical view, social responsibility is seen by businesses as a constraint in economic success which arises costs; conducting business as usual wasRead MoreSummary Creating Shared Value1280 Words   |  6 Pagesidentify unknown customer needs and expand the total pool of economic and social value. In the introduction the authors explain that the problem of the contemporary, narrowed capitalistic conception is the reduced trust that people have in business, which is seen as the reason for all kinds of environmental, societal and economic problems. 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